Vuillard [vijár] Edouard, *11.11.1868 – †21.6.1940, francouzský malíř a grafik; člen skupiny Nabis, jeden z průkopníků moderní grafiky (litografie). Malířská tvorba, kromě krátkého období vlivu P. Gauguina a japonských dřevorytů (prefauvismus), náležela
Vuillard [vijár] Edouard, *11.11.1868 – †21.6.1940, francouzský malíř a grafik; člen skupiny Nabis, jeden z průkopníků moderní grafiky (litografie). Malířská tvorba, kromě krátkého období vlivu P. Gauguina a japonských dřevorytů (prefauvismus), náležela intimismu. Vycházela z prostých námětů, ztvárněných technikou jemně odstupňované valérové malby. Součástí tvorby jsou též monumentální dekorace (pro Comédie des Champs Elysées v Paříži, palác Společnosti národů v Ženevě).
In reviewing an exhibition of Vuillard’s work in 1991, the painter Howard Hodgkin highlighted a central problem with the artist’s oeuvre: “No one in a museum knows where to put him. He has fallen between one index card and another for too long ... Each picture is a new adventure, a new beginning. There is nothing that will enable you to bypass having to look at the pictures themselves.”
Vuillard’s drawings, in pastel, charcoal or pencil, have qualities quite separate from his work in oils.
As John Russell Taylor wrote in 1994: “The pencil lines appear to meander and fluctuate almost at random, and yet try for a moment to remove any one of them and you find that something essential would be gone.”
Vuillard was born in Cuiseaux (Saone-et-Loire) but moved to Paris with his family at the age of 10, where he went to school with Maurice Denis and Xavier Rossel. All three went on to study at the Academie Juilian, and with Bonnard, Seruisier and Valloton formed the Nabis group of painters.
The group flourished in the 1890’s and Vuillard became known for his intimate interiors painted in an original style with flattish colours.
From 1900 he, together with Bonnard, became increasingly naturalistic in style and the two of them became the main practitioners of Intimisme, which made use of cameras to capture fleeting informal meetings of groups of friends or relatives in intimate surroundings.
He had several close female friends and generally preferred to paint female sitters.
Although a successful artist he lived relatively modestly, sharing an apartment with his widowed mother until her death in 1928 (he often depicted her in his paintings).
He was reserved and quiet although affectionate and very much liked, but he seldom showed his paintings except at the gallery of his dealer Bernheim Jeune.
The public knew little of his work until the Musee des arts Decoratif held a major retrospective in Paris in 1938.
He died in La Baule while fleeing the German invasion.
For many years he kept a detailed journal (48 volumes all held in the Institute de France, Paris) which he revealed his thoughtful attitude towards art and life.
As a genuine artistic pioneer of the first years of the 20th century, his work is in most of the world’s great collections. In: http://www.artnet.com/artist/17376/edouard-vuillard.html
Vuillard, (Jean) Édouard (1868-1940), French painter of intimate interior scenes, whose individualistic technique set him apart from most of his contemporaries. He studied art in Paris at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Academie Julien. He exhibited with the Nabis group in 1891 but was only slightly influenced by them; his main source of inspiration was the stylization of form he saw in Japanese prints and the exoticism in the work of Puvis de Chavannes.
Much of Vuillard's work consisted of theatre sets, which are no longer extant; he also designed decorative panels and produced colour lithographs. In his paintings, he confined himself primarily to scenes of cosy, cluttered interiors, often using his mother and sister as models. His delicate style is characterized by a lavish use of pattern—wallpaper, upholstery, and dress fabrics are closely juxtaposed in his scenes to create an effect almost like collage. Vuillard's compositions are often daringly or playfully off-centre, as in Artist's Mother and Sister in Studio (c. 1900, Museum of Modern Art, New York). His work, although widely popular and extremely impressive on its own terms, was too far outside the mainstream of modern art to be of substantial influence.
In: Microsoft Encarta
Edouard Vuillard was born on November 11, 1868, at Cuisseaux in the Saone-et-Loire department of France. When he was nine his family moved to Paris. His father, a retired military officer, died in 1883. His mother who came from a family of textile designers, went into the dressmaking trade to support her children. Such an environment must have nurtured Vuillard's sensuous awareness of patterns and textures. He lived with his mother until her death in 1928.
Vuillard was educated, like Toulouse-Lautrec, at the Lycee Condorcet in Paris, where he met Ker Xavier Roussel, who married his sister, and Maurice Denis. In 1886, Vuillard went on, with Roussel, to study painting at the Paris Ecole des Beaux-Arts under the academic Jean Leon Gerome. Two years later he was working with Denis, his lifelong friend Pierre Bonnard, and Paul Serusier at the Academie Julian.
That year, 1888, Serusier met Gauguin at Pont-Aven in Brittany and later brought back with him a painting, The Talisman, of an entirely new type, the result of taking literally Gauguin's advice to paint in unmodulated, unshaded, unadulterated colors. Out of Serusier's enthusiasm a group called the Nabis, after the Hebrew for "Prophets", was formed. Vuillard, Bonnard, Denis, and Roussel all became members.
The Nabi painters rejected naturalism and, by implication, Impressionism, in favor of pure design and color. Art, they felt, was more important than nature. Their subject matter and theories were allied to those of the Symbolist writers and poets, such as Stephane Mallarme, an acquaintance of Vuillard. The group held ritual dinners and discussions and refered to Serusier's studio as "The Temple."
In 1891 Edouard Vuillard shared a studio with Pierre Bonnard and Denis. In the same year he contributed to the exhibition of Impressionist and Symbolist painters with which the art dealer Le Barc de Boutteville opened a new Paris gallery. Vuillard focused his attention upon the decorative element of painting, producing warm, colorful surfaces that did not attempt to give the illusion of depth. The freedom with which he treated natural forms in the service of design was even greater than that of Japanese prints that inspired him. But he also bore in mind the firm basic structure of these woodcuts, planning his own work in planes, verticals, and horizontals, within which the patterns could flow.
In 1891 the Symbolist "La Revue Blanche" published lithographs by Edouard Vuillard, and he went on to design several covers and posters for it; he also designed murals for one of its founders. He did costumes and sets for the Theatre de l'Oeuvre in 1893, sets and panels that included a scene from Moliere's "Le Malade Imaginaire" for the Comedie des Champs-Elysees in 1913, decorations for the Palais de Chillot in 1937 and, in 1939, decorations, one representing Peace, for the League of Nations in Geneva.
With Pierre Bonnard, Edouard Vuillard visited Hamburg in 1905, England and Holland in 1913. In 1908 he taught at an academy founded by the widow of Paul Ranson, also a Nabi. After 1900, however, their corporate momentum gone, the Nabis disintegrated. Vuillard himself grew closer to the Impressionism that the Nabis had rejected. His work, less colorful and less inventive, consisted now of domestic scenes. He and Bonnard, whose style underwent a similar change, became known as the Intimistes.
For some years Edouard Vuillard was almost completely out of the public eye, but in 1936 he showed with other former Nabis, and in 1938 a Vuillard retrospective exhibition in Paris revived interest in him. The part played by his pre-Intimiste style in the emergence of Art Nouveau was important, He died on June 21, 1940, at La Baule on the Brittany coast.